Georgia experienced a significant rise in Sex Ratio at Birth (SRB1) after its independence from the Soviet Union. Currently, it is among twelve countries worldwide where sex imbalances at birth have been observed. The other countries are Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, China, Hong Kong (SAR of China), India, the Republic of Korea, Montenegro, Taiwan (Province of China), Tunisia, and Vietnam.
Today, around 126 million women are believed to be “missing” around the world due to son preference and gender-biased sex selection (GBSS). Since the 1990s, some areas in the world have seen up to 25% more male birth than female birth (UNFPA Georgia). For example, the sex ratio at birth (SRB) increased from 107 in 1982 to 120 in 2005 in China [while the natural level is 102-106 males per 100 females] (Li, 2007).
Gender-biased sex selection (GBSS) in favor of boys is an indicator of gender discrimination and highlights the inequality towards girls throughout many countries. Patriarchal structures reinforce a preference for sons and perpetuate a societal climate of violence and discrimination against women and girls. GBSS is moreover a symptom of the pervasive social, political, cultural, and economic injustices against women and girls.
This study explores the factors behind the improvements in Sex Ratio at Birth (SRB) in Georgia over the last 15 years. It combines quantitative and qualitative analysis. Focus groups, in-depth interviews, and econometric analysis have highlighted the following determinants of SRB improvements: improved economic conditions, reduced poverty, increasing the economic share of the service sector (creating new job opportunities for women in banking, retail trade and other
After independence from the Soviet Union, Georgia started experiencing a significant rise in the number of boys born compared with the number of girls, the sex ratio at birth. As of 2004 Georgia had one of the highest sex ratio at birth rates in the world, but by 2016 the ratio was at the biologically normal level. The country’s unique position provides valuable knowledge and experience.