Adopted in 2000 by the International Labour Organization (ILO), the Maternity Protection Convention (C183) set the minimum standards that need to be implemented worldwide in order for pregnant women and working mothers to be adequately protected in the labour market. Since its adoption, 39 countries have ratified the Convention. Georgia, an ILO member since 1993, has not yet done so.
This policy brief summarizes the main findings of the Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) on the possible ratification of the International Labour Organization (ILO) Domestic Workers Convention, 2011 (No. 189). The Convention aims to ensure decent work for all and provide domestic workers with fundamental protections and rights.
Women are generally under-represented in political offices worldwide, and their under-representation becomes larger in more senior positions. Infırst brıef the author reviews some recent academic literature in economics and political science on the likely causes of women’s under-representation. Broadly speaking, the literature has divided such causes into “supply-side” and “demand-side” factors: the former include women’s potentially lower willingness to run for political office, whereas the latter include voters’ and party leaders’ prejudices against women in politics. Understanding the underlying causes of women’s under-representation in political institutions is crucial in order to design the most effective policies to address the existing gender gaps. In concluding the author summarizes some of the policies that have been proposed or used to empower women in politics and reviews the evidence on their effectiveness when available.
The COVID-19 pandemic and consequent stringent lockdown measures have had a drastic toll on the Georgian economy. The economic downturn has significantly affected the resilience of local Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), whose sales decreased by almost 13% (YoY) in the first two quarters of 2020. These negative impacts of the economic contraction have been particularly severe for Women-led Small and Medium Enterprises (WSMEs). In the business-as-usual scenario, compared to their male counterparts, women face greater constraints in establishing and running enterprises in Georgia. Such gender disparities were moreover found to be exacerbated because of the strict quarantine measures introduced throughout the country. This policy paper evaluates the impacts, specific challenges, and prospects for women-led businesses during and post the COVID-19 pandemic in Georgia, and also offers recommendations to the government, donors, and private sector stakeholders on how to cushion Coronavirus-driven harm. For this analysis, different qualitative and quantitative research methods were utilized.
The lockdowns and trade restrictions related to the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in shortages of some major food commodities on international and local markets. In this policy brief, we discuss and analyze Georgia's response to the crisis in terms of food security and agricultural policy. Furthermore, we provide recommendations to ensure fewer disruptions in food supply chains and low volatility in food prices. COVID-19 has posed significant risks to the food security of many countries including Georgia. Lockdowns and pandemic-related trade restrictions across the world have resulted in shortages of some major food commodities on international and local markets (e.g. sunflower oil shortage in Russia). As of October 16, 2020, according to a World Bank report, 62 jurisdictions have executed a total of 62 export controls in food commodities since the beginning of 2020.
This paper analyses income distribution and poverty reduction in Georgia in the period 2010 to 2017/2018. As we have no data for 2019, our findings do not relate to the most recent distributional policies of the Georgian government. Our results suggest that while Georgia has substantially reduced poverty and income inequality, continuous monitoring of the situation would be helpful.Main findings are: • Georgia has made significant progress in poverty reduction, almost halving the poverty rate to 16% during 2010 to 2015 (using the World Bank measure for lower middle-income countries). However, poverty did not decline further from 2016 to 2018 and remains high when compared to peer group countries.